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Public History News

Photo of Todd's Inheritance house in Edgemere, Maryland.

Earlier this semester, before COVID 19 prevented us all from gathering together to engage in service learning, our history majors engaged in a service project at Todd's Inheritance....

On Sunday, February 9th, members of Stevenson's history major visited one of Maryland's cultural jewels, the Fire Museum of Maryland.

 

History Majors standing in front of fire apparatus.
CAPTION: History majors Harrison Oliver, Jack Seals, Steff Sommers, Mike van der Vossen, and Alex Reed learned a lot, ate some good food, and learned lessons that would unexpectedly serve them well in just a short time on their Sunday afternoon trip to the Fire Museum.

Catered by Towson Delly North, the lively program commemorated the 116th anniversary of the Great Baltimore Fire and the 100th anniversary of women receiving the right to vote.  Speakers included historian Wayne Schaumburg and Baltimore County Fire Chief Joanne Rund.

Joanne Rund being sworn in as Baltimore County Fire Chief

Caption:  Joanne Rund being sworn in as Baltimore County Fire Chief.

Chief Rund addressed the problems women have faced over the last fifty years while trying to attain equality with men in the work place, especially in historically male dominated occupations like firefighting.  Of greater importance, and of a more buoying nature, were her comments regarding how problems within the field have been addressed in the past and continue to be addressed today.  The greatest example of her talk was the fact that she is now Baltimore County's Fire Chief, a position few thought a woman could ever attain a generation ago.

Black and White photo of Baltimore burned out as a result of the Great Fire of 1904.

Caption: Over 1500 buildings and 80 blocks of the city were destroyed by the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904..

Wayne Schaumburg did a masterful job of captivating his audience as he told the story of the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904.  While many in his audience were aware of the fire in general, his masterful command of the facts of that disaster as well as the lessons learned were compelling.  Few of us, even the historians in the audience, were aware of how fast Baltimore snapped back to life in the wake of the fire.  The resilience of the community, the commitment of its wealthiest citizens, and the "can do" attitude of its commercial sector were truly amazing to hear about.

COVID 19 data chart for the State of Maryland

Caption: A chart showing statistics of Maryland's crisis-level engagement with COVID 19 in spring 2020.

On that Sunday afternoon in February, none of us could have predicted the current crisis both Baltimore and our nation are undergoing as a result of COVID 19.  The same bravery Baltimore's residents saw in its first responders in 1904 we see today.  The same destruction of local businesses and widespread unemployment as in 1904 we see today.  Similarly, we see the same commitment by our local business people to ensuring businesses re-emerge from the crisis and that unemployment is addressed in the strongest terms possible.  Little did our majors realize how the past would serve as a valuable precursor for today.

Our majors learned that knowing our history provides perspective, having perspective provides hope, and with hope we can survive almost anything. 

Memo of soldier with words We Need Your Help
(Update as of January 5th 2020-- The Wall of Faces has posted CPL Pervis Valentine's photo)
 
He first became acquainted with Vietnam's climate while an infantryman in the Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade.  Although an elite paratrooper outfit, it had been years since they had jumped into combat and it didn't look like they would be parachuting anytime too soon.  Vietnam was the place for helicopters, not parachutes.  However, only half the fun of being a paratrooper was jumping, the other half was always fighting outnumbered on the ground. That second half of paratrooper fun was the fun he could have anytime he wanted. In Vietnam there were plenty of places to fight outnumbered.
 
It was frustrating being a paratrooper with no place to jump, but lots of things were frustrating in the Army in 1967.  While his military occupational specialty was as a mortar crewman, in the Army you do whatever the Army tells you to do.  Sometimes he was a mortar crewman, sometimes an infantryman, sometimes, being a private, he simply burned barrels of human waste collected in camp, mixed with fuel and set afire. But, on 10 January 1967 he was doing what paratroopers loved to do--he was fighting the enemy.  That's when he was wounded, along with SSG David Konen, PFC James Fluck, and PFC Wayne Tuttle.  He earned the Purple Heart as a result of his wounds.  The certificate for the Purple Heart said he earned the award "for wounds received in action" in the Republic of Vietnam. It gave his name: Pervis B. Valentine, Jr.  
 
Photo of mortar in Vietnam
Mortar set up for use in the field in Vietnam.
Because of that wound, Valentine missed being an important part of paratrooper history about six weeks later.  More severely wounded than the other three men on that January day, Valentine was unable to take part in the only combat parachute jump during the Vietnam War.  It took place at the end of February 1967 and it involved elements of the 173rd Airborne Brigade jumping out of a perfectly good aircraft, trusting their lives to a piece of silk, and engaging in the role of infantry upon landing.  The manifest of that historic jump is online several places today.  Included on the manifest are the names of Konen, Fluck, and Tuttle.  They made history that day.  Valentine's name is missing, presumably because he was not yet fit for duty after his wound on January 10th.
 
Photo of Paratroopers jumping in combat in Vietnam
Photo of 173rd Airborne Brigade on the only combat jump in the Vietnam War
Proud soldier that he was, when Valentine's first combat tour ended he volunteered to return for another. This time he was part of the Cavalry, to be specific B Troop, 1st Squadron, 17th Cavalry.  Their unit insignia was a winged spur.  The spur denoting the cavalry and the wings denoting their paratrooper status.  For although they were labeled "Cav," they had long been known as the reconnaissance unit of the 82nd Airborne Division.  Organized and trained to "sneak and peek" behind enemy lines and report intelligence back to higher headquarters, B Troop was always in the thick of it.  It was during OPERATION CARENTAN II,  on April 19, 1968, just a little over two months after his second tour began, when CPL Pervis Valentine, Jr was killed in Vietnam.  Part of a jeep patrol, he died from wounds sustained when his jeep hit an enemy landmine in Thua Thien Province. 
 
Photo of a winged spur
Winged Spur-- the insignia of the 17th Cavalry
His body was returned to the U.S. and he was buried in New Jersey's Beverly National Cemetery, about 23 miles northeast of where he grew up in "Philly."  The Army being the Army, however, a guy couldn't even die without an Army SNAFU.  In Valentine's case his headstone is incorrect.  It shows his date of birth as being May 10, 1944 as opposed to every other piece of Army documentation that reflects his birth a year earlier on May 10, 1943.  For this particular story it is also important to note that his birthplace is shown as Pennsylvania.
 
Photo of Pervis Valentine's headstone in Baverly National Cemetery, New Jersey
The headstone of Pervis B Valentine, Jr in Beverly National Cemetery (NJ)
While many narratives would end the story right here, in this narrative we have arrived at its beginning.  Until now the story has been of a Vietnam era hero, a young man who earned the Purple Heart as well as a Bronze Star (Merit), but now it needs to address the involvement of Stevenson University's history program.  We became involved because we are trying to solve a problem. 
 
If the online photo memorial to every American who died in Vietnam, the "Wall of Faces," reflects that the photo for every Pennsylvanian who died in Vietnam has been located and posted to that Wall, why is it missing CPL Pervis Valentine, Jr's photo?
Screenshot of Pervis Valentines profile on the Vietnam Wall of Faces online
Pervis Valentine's profile on the Wall of Faces.  "We need your help....."
Pervis Valentine's information can be found at the "Wall of Faces," but not his photo.  That's because the U.S. Army's paperwork reflects that Valentine's home of record was Roxbury, Massachusetts, not his family home on Titan Street in Philadelphia.  You know he's from Philadelphia, and I know he's from Philadelphia.  For heaven's sake, his headstone-- supplied by the government-- reflects that fact. But, apparently Valentine threw the Army a curveball by getting married in Massachusetts.
 
Apparently, Valentine married Elizabeth Wesley in Boston in 1966.  Upon getting married, Valentine's home of record would have changed from where his parents lived to where he and his wife lived.  In getting ready to go to Vietnam on his first tour Valentine would have changed the name of his PNOK (Primary Next of Kin from his mom to that of his wife, Elizabeth Valentine, Roxbury, MA.  Because of that change his "home of record" was Massachusetts.  Consequently,  when he died his loss was officially credited to the Vietnam War losses of Massachusetts.  Therefore, on the granite Wall of Remembrance in Washington, DC, Valentine is listed as a son of Massachusetts.  When the online version of that memorial wall was conceptualized as a Wall of Faces, the hunt for his photo centered on Roxbury, Massachusetts. 
 
The reason the photos are so important is that as soon as each photo is located it is posted to the "Wall of Faces" online.  The "Wall of Faces" accomplishes online with photos what the "Wall of Remembrance" accomplishes in granite in Washington, D.C.  Of the 58,276  American men and women who died in Vietnam, researchers-- like those in the history program at Stevenson University-- have located 99.4% of their photos. We are now trying to locate the last 306 photos. CPL Pervis Valentine, Jr is one of those 306 photos.  But, in the near term, his photo is even more critical.  It is one of the last two we need to find to complete the photo gallery of honor for Massachusetts.
Screenshot of Advanced search returns for Massachusetts soldiers without photos on Wall of Faces online.  Two photos are missing.
The two photos needed to complete the gallery of honor for Massachusetts.
According to the DoD, by the end of the war, CPL Valentine was one of 1,336 military members from Massachusetts who had died in Vietnam.  Of those 1,336 fatal casualties, researchers have located photos of 1,334.  Only two photos remain to be found in order to complete Massachusetts' photo roll of honor. Of those two missing photos, one belongs to CPL Valentine.
 
Maryland found its final photos in 2016, and searchers from Stevenson University's history program were crucial to enabling that success.  Pennsylvania completed their hunt for photos in December of 2019, and Stevenson was recognized for its work in support of that effort as well.  So far, 44 of the states and territories of the United States have completed their photo search and placed their photos on the Wall of Faces.  Massachusetts having lost 1,336 service members in Vietnam is only two photos away from being complete. 
 
We are really excited because Stevenson University researchers have located a photo of CPL Pervis Valentine, Jr.  Pervis is no longer a faceless ghost.  We have an image of what he looked like at age 18.
 
A search through newspapers of the era revealed a photo of Pervis Valentine, Jr. in the Afro American newspaper of December 29, 1962 edition on Page 17.  Below you will see a screenshot of that page.  Highlighted is the name of Pervis Valentine, Jr from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His photo is on the top right of the collage.  At the time he was approximately 18 years old and was a recent recruit into the USAF. 
Screenshot of Afro American newsdpaper from 29 December 1962 showing Purvis Valentine, Junior in an Air Force Uniform.
 
However, as you can see, the picture is of, at best, dubious quality.  Having finally found his long sought for photo, it's clear the photo is not good enough to post on the Wall of Faces.  We need to find a good version of that picture.  We have reached out to the Afro American newspaper and are awaiting their response.  If they have that photo it will be a miracle.  So, we need to look at other possibilities.  Here is where we need your help.
 
We know from the screenshot that he was a junior enlisted man in the USAF in December 1962.  The USAF provided that photo to the newspaper, so it would be a good guess that the USAF has a copy even today.  One would think we would be able to send an e-mail, order the picture from the USAF and resolve the issue.  Unfortunately, it's not that simple.  Throughout the last decade the military has been generally unwilling to use its vast resources to locate these photos.  There are lots of good reasons for this, so a somewhat slower informal approach has evolved.  Informally the DoD is great to work with and everything is accomplished by personal contact.  Generals and colonels talk to other generals and colonels, retired sergeants major have a beer with an active sergeant major and requests are made.  Its a world of "I know a guy who knows a woman who is in charge of....."  It is slow, it takes place when other higher priority requests have been satisfied, but it gets the job done.
 
We have no idea who you might know, who's in your family, or who you served with.  We have no idea if your relative is a congressional staffer from Pennsylvania or Massachusetts.  What we know is that Valentine's photo will probably come from within the military.  It might be found in the USAF records from 1962 since they were the ones who sent Valentine's photo to the Afro American.  The photo might come from the Army since Valentine would have gone to Airborne School.  In either case, the USAF or the Army, there would exist a photo from the individual's military records jacket (his "201" file). 
 
If you have any contact with someone of importance in the USAF or Army, or if you know a member of the congressional delegation from Pennsylvania or Massachusetts, please communicate to them the need to locate a photo of Pervis B. Valentine, Jr.  CPL Valentine was born 10 May 1943 (sometimes shown as 10 May 1944) in Philadelphia, PA.  His home of record from 1962 shows as 2609 Titan Street, Philadelphia, PA.  His father's name was Pervis Valentine and his mother's Julia.  If located, the photo can be posted directly to the Wall of Faces online, or it can be sent to archives@stevenson.edu   The only thing we ask is that you confirm it is the correct Pervis Valentine-- there are several out there.
 
At this time a valid question on your part would be: Why is this plea posted on our history department blog?  The answer is that this post shows how we do history at Stevenson.  Our program is all about history being a way of actively engaging with the past in order to serve our needs today.  It's about posing questions that result in expeditions into the past, expeditions that create new knowledge as a result of interacting with old data, with old evidence, and, often, with old people.  It's posted here because you need to know that historians need also be audacious.  In order to find a photo of CPL Valentine we will need to have the audacity to seek audiences with members of Congress, Air Force generals, and newspaper executives.  We will need to be humble when we approach Vietnam veterans from Valentine's unit, his family, and people from his neighborhood.  Far from being researchers cloistered in an archive, at Stevenson University our history majors are detectives on a journey into the past.  We hunt for evidence that will provide us facts that illuminate the present and provide a foundation for the future.      
 
 
 
 

Black and White photo of Matthew Harris, Jr in USAF shirt and tie.

The last photo found by the Pennsylvania research team made of individuals, organizations, and the Stevenson University history program: MSGT Matthew N. Harris, Jr (USAF) of Philadelphia.  Died May 28, 1965.  While SU history majors did not find this last photo, they found 116 others in four months' work.

In early-December the State of Pennsylvania announced that it had located photos of all 3,150 Pennsylvanians killed in Vietnam.  Posted to the online Vietnam Wall of Faces, people can now see a photo of each Pennsylvanian killed during that war.  In its media release commemorating that accomplishment, the State specifically recognized and thanked the Stevenson History Program for helping locate many of the missing photos. 

Headstone of US Air Force Master Sergeant Matthew N Harris Junior.

Headstone of Master Sergeant Matthew N. Harris, Jr. (USAF)

“It is incredibly gratifying to know that all 3,150 Pennsylvanians who died in Vietnam are now represented on the virtual Wall Of Faces where they can be honored by anyone, from anywhere around the world,” said Gov. Tom Wolf. “We owe a debt of gratitude to the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs who led this effort, along with everyone they partnered with over the past four years, for tenaciously searching until the last photo was found. Completing this project demonstrates just how much pride Pennsylvania has in all of those who have served our great nation, and that no one will ever be forgotten.”

Photo collage frrpm Virtual Wall of Faces of those men and women killed during the Vietnam War.

A photo collage of US casualties during the Vietnam War.  All of these photos are at the VVMF's Vietnam  "Wall of Faces" online.

For the past four years the Pennsylvania Department of Military and Veterans Affairs (DMVA) has partnered with the VVMF in Washington, D.C., to find a photo of every Pennsylvanian whose name appears on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall – commonly referred to as The Wall. The VVMF has been posting the photos on a virtual Wall of Faces in order to put a face and a story to every name to help preserve their legacies.

“This was a great and incredibly important project that helps show the families and friends of the Pennsylvanians lost in Vietnam that their loved ones will not be forgotten,” said Maj. Gen. Anthony Carrelli. “We owe a huge thanks to all of the volunteers from around the country who have been instrumental in locating these photos and spreading the word about the Wall of Faces effort.

“I’d also like to give a few deserved shout-outs to the Pennsylvania media outlets who featured this program, the Public History Program students at Stevenson University in Maryland, members of the Pennsylvania Civil Air Patrol, and Vietnam veteran John Thomstatter and his team of researchers, who helped get us to the finish line.”

Flyer showing faces of Maryland soldiers killed in Vietnam as discovered by Stevenson researchers.

Sixty four of the photos of Maryland Vietnam casualties located by Stevenson history students in 2016.

The Stevenson History Program began helping the State of Pennsylvania find photos of its Vietnam casualties after its history students helped the State of Maryland find its last remaining photos in 2016.  An ongoing volunteer project within the program, Stevenson's history majors have located over 160 pictures of Vietnam casualties from Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Maine, Virginia, and West Virginia.  It takes, on average, about eight hours to locate a missing photo.

Book cover of Goodall's Pirates of the Chesapeake Bay

The book's cover.

Get ready to have fun reading this spring---Dr Jamie Goodall is releasing her latest book, Pirates of the Chesapeake Bay, in late February.  Covering the period that runs from the Colonial Era to the Oyster Wars, Dr. Goodall applies her knowledge of illicit trade in the Atlantic region to our home waters.  Published by the History Press, the paperback book runs 128 pages. 

Line drawing from Harpers Magazine of 1886 showing Maryland Oyster Navy armed schooner attacking armed pirates dredging oysters illegally in the Chesapeake Bay.

Maryland's armed steam schooner, probably the Governor R. M. McLane, exchanges cannon fire with armed oyster pirates. (Harper's Weekly, Jan 1886)

Per Amazon.com's description of her book, the story of Chesapeake pirates and patriots begins with a land dispute and ends with the untimely death of an oyster dredger at the hands of the Maryland Oyster Navy--forerunner to today's Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) police. From the golden age of piracy to Confederate privateers and oyster pirates, the maritime communities of the Chesapeake Bay were intimately tied to a fascinating history of intrigue, plunder and illicit commerce raiding. Dr. Goodall introduces infamous men like Edward "Blackbeard" Teach and "Black Sam" Bellamy, as well as lesser-known local figures like Gus Price and Berkeley Muse, whose tales of piracy are legendary from the harbor of Baltimore to the shores of Cape Charles.

Photo of Dr Jamie Goodall, portrait style

The author, Dr. Jamie Goodall.

Dr Goodall serves as an Assistant Professor of History in the History department at Stevenson University in Baltimore, MD. She has a PhD in History from The Ohio State University with specializations in Atlantic World, Early American, and Military histories. She is also a first-generation college student. Her publications include a journal article, “Tippling Houses, Rum Shops, & Taverns: How Alcohol Fueled Informal Commercial Networks and Knowledge Exchange in the West Indies” in the Journal of Maritime History and various historical chapters for Gale Researcher Online.

Copies of Dr, Goodall's book can be pre-ordered online through Amazon.com.

 
 
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