This summer Dr. Mark Norris presented at the Science & Management of Ash Forests Workshop in Duluth, MN. The workshop aimed to share research on Emerald Ash Borers (EAB), an invasive species from China, with other scientists, forestry officials, land managers, tribal resource agencies, and private land owners from around the country. In 2002, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), was introduced to Detroit from China. Since then, the borer has been has been spreading across the country and is now poised to invade the ash forests in northern Minnesota. The forests in Minnesota alone are home to more than a billion black ash trees. Maine, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin also have large ash forests that are now threatened by these borers. What will happen as the ash trees are killed off? Dr. Norris’ research indicates that the forest will return to shrubland that consists of a significant proportion of non-native vegetation. In other words, the ecosystem that grows in after the ash forest is lost will likely be an entirely new ecosystem.